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From Abandonment to Inclusion: The Role of the State in Violence, Public Security and Human Rights in favela communities in Rio de Janeiro – The Case Studies of Santa Marta and City of God

Beginning in December of 2008, the State of Rio de Janeiro and federal government of Brazil began a new policy shift in securitizing favela communities. In an effort to combat the city’s drug traffickers and prevalent violence, the State began installing “pacification” or “peacekeeping” units in vulnerable favela communities. Following pacification, the State then increases investment in infrastructure and social programs.

Drawn from the authors’ experience of living in Rio, this award nominated paper looks at the evolving role of the State of Rio de Janeiro in recent years in two specific favela communities: Santa Marta and City of God. As the city prepares to host the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games, preparations mount and the international community awaits to see what Rio is capable of accomplishing in their fight to eliminate the city’s famous drug trade and infamous violence. Will these preparations benefit those most marginalized? Or will it continue to push the socially excluded even further into the periphery?

After multiple failed security policies since the 1980s, recent actions and investments show the State’s new human rights based approach to security and social and economic investment. Fulfilling its national and international obligations of respecting, protecting and fulfilling the rights of all citizens while also moving forward on a path of progressive economic and social development, the State of Rio de Janeiro is entering a new era. Its new policies are battling a deeper embedded structural violence while enhancing the capabilities of formerly deprived citizens. Santa Marta and City of God serve as case studies in analyzing the State of Rio de Janeiro, its fulfillment of human rights obligations and its progressive path of economic and social development in favela communities.

Author Mary E. Robbins

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From Abandonment to Inclusion: The Role of the State in Violence, Public Security and Human Rights in favela communities in Rio de Janeiro, The Case Studies of Santa Marta and City of God (1468)

To what extent have the colonial legacies and formative years shaped the contemporary Pakistan and its challenges with Islamic Extremism?

Despite being only 65 years old Pakistan has undergone a difficult progression and suffered many setbacks. From political instability to repeated martial regimes the people of Pakistan have witnessed an endless array of changes and upheavals, all played out in front of a growing global audience. Its relationship with extremism is a well documented one and an area that forces the country into the spotlight on a regular basis. It is this troubled association with extremist behaviour that has paved the way for this research. The aim has been to ascertain what role the legacy of colonial domination and the initial years of construction have had on contemporary Pakistan’s fight with extremist behaviour. It is asserted that the actions and policies instigated under British rule coupled with the subsequent division of India have played a dominant role in the struggles that Pakistan has faced and its escalating relationship with Islamic extremism.

The majority of the research in this field looks at more modern historical components as causes and cites the late 1970’s as the turning point for Islamic extremism within Pakistan; others focus on the wider implications of British rule such as economic turmoil and financial instability yet little attention is given to the possible relationship between British rule and extremist behaviour. This Paper asserts that it was the policies and actions of the British colonial administration at the time that directly underpinned the struggles faced by Pakistan post partition and that the roots of present day Islamic extremism can be traced back to the events surrounding colonial rule.

This Paper concludes that it is impossible for colonial leadership not to have impacted the future of Pakistan given the policies they devised and the documented response of the indigenous people. However, what this research also identifies is the simplicity of such conclusions and that it is imperative that the influence of colonial rule be examined alongside various other elements that could and did influence contemporary Pakistan. Whilst colonial rule is an active part of the conclusions drawn in this piece various other factors have come to light in dissecting Pakistan’s relationship with extremism. Islam itself has been analysed and closely researched and the way in which it has been utilised as a tool for political development is a fundamental element in answering the core question within this research.

Author: Stacey Bridge

HD PDF New To what extent have the colonial legacies and formative years shaped the contemporary Pakistan and its challenges with Islamic Extremism? (2363)

Large Scale Biofuel Projects in Mozambique: A Solution to Poverty?

There has recently been a large increase in global land acquisitions for fuel and food production. This has been spurred on by the combined global food, fuel and financial crisis. Speculators have been seeking out ‘cheap’ and what the investors and international development agencies term ‘idle land’ to occupy or lease. Large tracts of land are being allocated predominantly from developing nations such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe – and in the majority of cases the land is not ‘idle’ at all.

The large scale biofuel industry plays a significant role in this and has expanded rapidly in recent years, particularly in Mozambique. In this thesis the author aims to examine whether developing nations such as Mozambique have achieved poverty reduction through large scale biofuel projects and the assesses the impact it has made on many ordinary landowners in that country.

Author: Claire Burgess

HD PDF New Large Scale Biofuel Projects in Mozambique: A Solution to Poverty? (2912)

Law and Development: Applicable Law in Transitional Contexts – is there a role for model criminal legislation?

A challenge for the UN transitional administrators in Kosovo and East Timor was determining the applicable law of each territory, particularly in the area of criminal law. The UN had no theoretical approach to assist in the determination of applicable law nor any practical roadmap for upholding the applicable law in accordance with the UN normative framework. This challenge led to a UN review of peacekeeping operations recommendation that the UN develop model criminal codes for use in UN civil administration peacekeeping missions.

The call to develop model criminal codes builds on a plethora of model codes and legislative guides that have been developed by the multilateral banks, UN agencies and other multilateral and bilateral agencies to assist countries to implement international treaties, conventions and otherwise meet international standards.

This essay has considered the theoretical and practical challenges in the use of Model Codes in the current development context. Ultimately, model legislation is most effective when it is used as one tool to ensure that UN norms and standards are reflected in domestic legislation in a manner that supports local ownership and effectively considers and incorporates local cultural and context.

Author: Matthew Corrigan

HD PDF New Law and Development: Applicable Law in Transitional Contexts – is there a role for model criminal legislation? (1377)

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