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The Intersection of Gender, Education and Health: A Community-level Survey of Education and Health Outcomes for Women in Southeastern Togo

Gendered education and health outcomes are of great importance for developing regions of the world where low standards of human health and low levels of education persist. Low levels of female education are common in low-income countries, where priority is often given to educating boys. The literature demonstrates that, in the African context, gendered education affects family health. This research examined gendered education and health outcomes at the community level in southeastern Togo. Very few studies document the socio-economic realities for women in southeastern Togo, and fewer still evaluate community-level data for these variables.

Data from the community of Ganavé, Maritime, Togo were collected by way of a household survey– administered home-to-home by field researchers. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Chi-square tests were used to assess the relationship between levels of maternal education and several measures of family or community health. This study found that levels of education were much lower among mothers than they were among fathers, but that education levels were very low for both. Maternal education, in particular, was found to be a significant determinant of family hygiene and sanitation, identification of intestinal worms as a health problem, and home birth rates. Analysis of child labor, school attendance, and child mortality variables was precluded by our small sample size. This data seems to support the idea that higher rates of female education in the West African sub-region would be expected to have a positive effect on maternal health, as well as family and community health. This study’s data from Ganavé, a village community in southeastern Togo, support the findings of other studies in sub-Saharan West Africa, that maternal education affects family health. Further research, with samples from a broader range of economic strata and possibly degrees of urbanization, may assess the strength of the relationship between female education and family health in West Africa.

Authors:Trevor V. Mattos, Miranda Adams MacKinnon & Dorothy F. Boorse

HD PDF NewThe Intersection of Gender, Education and Health: A Community-level Survey of Education and Health Outcomes for Women in Southeastern Togo (1978)

On International Women’s Day Tanzanian women were still far from achieving a measure of equality


International Women’s Day earlier this month gave German based Governance student Dorosella Bishanga a moment to reflect on the levels of inequality faced by Women in her native Tanzania and citing recent studies comment on whether and when Women may yet gain greater participation in Tanzania’s social, economic and political spheres.

Losing out to Supermarkets – The Transformation of Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chains in Southern Africa

Supermarket chains have spread throughout Southern Africa and thereby restructured agri-food markets. Fragmented public markets have increasingly been replaced by supermarket stores which can offer products of better quality at lower prices. Those farmers who previously supplied public markets are now superfluous and have difficulties in entering new supermarket channels due to high entry requirements, in particular private standards. Although the expansion of supermarkets provides new opportunities for smallholders to participate in new supply chains, their inclusion has failed as supermarkets have not been able or willing to support farmers sufficiently. Instead, they co-operate with bigger farms which are able to meet their standards, or import the desired produce. Several alternative strategies for smallholders have been suggested, however, it remains uncertain whether an inclusion of smallholders into supermarket channels is the best available approach at all.

Author:David Parduhn

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Losing out to Supermarkets - The Transformation of Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chains in Southern Africa (1692)

Demographic Dimensions and their Implications on the Incidence of Street Begging in Urban Areas of Central Tanzania: The Case of Dodoma and Singida Municipalities

This study explores the implications of demographic dimensions on the incidence of street begging in urban areas of central Tanzania with Dodoma and Singida Municipalities as case studies. This study was conducted on different days at different streets and public spaces in Dodoma and Singida Municipalities to obtain data on incidence of street begging. A cross-sectional survey was employed and involved 130 street beggars. Structured questionnaires were administered on randomly selected beggars to obtain data on their demographic dimensions. Group discussions, key informant interview, and observations were also used to collect data relevant for the study.

Authors:Baltazar M.L. Namwata, Maseke R. Mgabo and Provident Dimoso


HD PDF NewDemographic Dimensions and their Implications on the Incidence of Street Begging in Urban Areas of Central Tanzania (4804)

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